Wednesday, November 2, 2016

Article on William T. Martin, commanding Martin's Cavalry, Confederate (link)

Chickamauga Blog:

"A Shooting Star: Brigadier General William T. Martin"
Article on William T. Martin (Martin's Cavalry), and Martin's conflict with General Wheeler.
https://chickamaugablog.wordpress.com/2009/08/24/a-shooting-star-brigadier-general-william-t-martin/

Subject: Confederate units, Confederate generals.

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

James G. Brown and the First Georgia State Troops (First Georgia Volunteer Infantry)

Articles about James G. Brown, of Murray County, Georgia, and his First Georgia Volunteer Infantry Battalion (U.S.), also called The First Georgia State Troops (first organized by James G. Brown in the Spring of 1864, under James S. Steedman, with the approval and recommendation of General Thomas). When the unit did not make, many of the men of the First Georgia Vols later joined the 5th Tennessee Infantry Volunteers.

The unit has a difficult, rather obscure history, and the various articles have conflicting information as to when it mustered, when it disbanded, etcetera. Part of the problem is that, under James Brown, the unit did not enlist enough men to become a regiment or a real battalion. Thomas recommended the unit to the War Department, who nixed the idea, on several counts. Not only did the War Department distrust Home Guard units, but the small battalion had run from battle in Dalton in October 1864. Steedman's criticism of the unit was very harsh.

Articles: 

"Forgotten Union Guerrillas of the North Georgia Mountains,"
Robert S. Davis, Jr., w/Bill Kinsland, asst.
Lumpkin County Genealogy
http://www.lcgen.com/UnionGuerrillas.html

Article in encyclopedia:
New Georgia Encyclopedia (link to article)
"Unionists," in "History & Archaeology: Civil War & Reconstruction, 1861-1877,"
New Georgia Encyclopedia
http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/unionists

Mentioned in book:
A Separate Civil War: Communities in Conflict in the Mountain South
Jonathan Dean Sarris
Google Books (short URL): http://bit.ly/James-G-Brown-brief-ref

Mentioned on: "Georgians in the Union Army" (Historic Marker)
http://georgiahistory.com/education-outreach/historical-markers/georgia-civil-war-150/

JAMES G. BROWN IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE U.S. SECRET SERVICE DURING THE CIVIL WAR. HE WAS THE CHIEF OF SCOUTS IN NORTH GEORGIA.

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 38

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 38, In Five Parts. 

Vol. XXXVIII, [Serial Nos. 72, 73, 74, 75, 76]  The Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign, May 1-Sept. 8, 1864.
Principal Events:  Rocky Face Ridge, Dalton, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, Pickett's Mills, Dallas, Marietta, Kenesaw Mountain, Kolb's Farm, Rousseau's Raid, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Garrard's Raids, Ezra Church, Utoy Creek, McCook's Raid, Stoneman's Raid, Wheeler’s Raid, Kilpatrick's Raid, Jonesborough, Lovejoy's Station. See also Supplemental Vol. LII.

Vol. 38, pt. 1 (Reports): Atlanta, Georgia, campaign, May-Sept. 1864, Reports. [Serial No. 72]
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146042/

Vol. 38, pt. 2 (Reports): Atlanta, Georgia, campaign, May-Sept. 1864, Reports. [Serial No. 73]
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146043/

Vol. 38, pt. 3 (Reports): Atlanta, Georgia, campaign, May-Sept. 1864, Reports. [Serial No. 74]
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154634/

Vol. 38, pt. 4: Atlanta, Georgia, campaign, May-Sept. 1864, Correspondence. [Serial No. 75]
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146044/m1/1/
One ref.: June 17, 1864: Lt. How reports intell to Col. W.W. Lowe: Confed. Wheeler is about to raid RR betw. Dalton and Cleveland. https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146044/m1/503/

Vol. 38, pt. 5 (Correspondence, etc.): Atlanta, Georgia, campaign, May-Sept. 1864, Correspondence. [Serial No. 76]
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146049/

Vol. 38, Additions and Corrections
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth308997/

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 23 (still need links)

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 23, In Two Parts. 

Vol. XXIII, [Serial Nos. 34, 35]  Operations in Kentucky, Middle and East Tennessee, North Alabama and Southwest Virginia, Jan. 21-Aug. 10, 1863.
Principal Events:  Thompson's Station, Vaught's Hill, Pegram's Raid, Brentwood, Wheeler's Railroad Raid, Franklin, Streight's Raid, Everett's Raid, Sanders' Raid, I-lines' Raid, Tullahoma Campaign, Morgan's Ohio Raid, Scott's Raid. See also Supplemental Vol. LII.  
Need links!



Official Records, Series 1, Volume 26

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 26, In Two Parts. Part 1, [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889].

Chapter XXXVIII (38). Operations in West Florida, Southern Alabama, Southern Mississippi, Louisiana,* Texas, and New Mexico. May 14-December 31, 1863.

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 26, Part 1 
(Reports, Union and Confederate; Correspondence, Union)
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154596/


Official Records, Series 1, Volume 26, Part 2 
(Correspondence...Confederate)
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154601/


Additions and Corrections to Series 1, Volume 26
[Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902]
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth308990/

_____________________

About this series (including biblio, citation, description)
http://musescivilwar.blogspot.com/2016/08/official-records-citation.html

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 45

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 45, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports, Correspondence, etc. 

Chapter LVII (57): Operations in Kentucky, Southwest Virginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, and North Georgia. November 14, 1864-January 23, 1865.

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 45, Part 1 (Reports)

Link to title page:
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth142228/m1/1/

Link to page 1:
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth142228/m1/33/


About this series (including biblio, citation, description)
http://musescivilwar.blogspot.com/2016/08/official-records-citation.html

Selected Correspondence of James G. Brown to General James B. Steedman

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 45, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports, Correspondence, etc. [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896], page: 947

Correspondence from James G. Brown (scout) to General James B. Steedman
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth142228/m1/979/?q=james%20g.%20brown

One of these mentions Murray County (Murray County, Georgia), and mentions Spring Place.
_____________________________

The following source mentions James G. Brown, the North Georgia scout, as a native of Murray County, Georgia, and it mentions his 1st Georgia State Troops Volunteers (U.S.):

A  Separate Civil War: Communities in Conflict in the Mountain South
Jonathan Dean Sarris
Google Books (short URL): http://bit.ly/James-G-Brown-brief-ref

James B. Steedman commanding District of the Etowah, June 1864, and in same (reorganized), Feb. 1865

James B. Steedman, District of the Etowah, June 1864

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 38, In Five Parts. [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891]. 

Series 1, Volume 38, In Five Parts. Part 4 (Correspondence, etc.), 492
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146044/m1/492/

Major General James B. Steedman assumes command of the District of the Etowah:
General Orders, No. 1 } Hdqrs. District of the Etowah,
Chattanooga, Tenn., June 15, 1864.
I. Pursuant to paragraph I, Special Field Orders, No. 22, Military Dvision of the Mississippi, dated June 2, 1864, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the District of the Etowah, comprised as follows of the country from Bridgeport to Allatoona, including Cleveland, Rome, and the country east as far as controlled by the Federal troops.
[etcetera]

J. B. Steedman,
   Major-General
_____________________________

James B. Steedman, District of the Etowah (Reorganized), February 1865

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 49, In Two Parts [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1897].

Series 1, Volume 49, In Two Parts. Part 1 (Reports, Correspondence, etc.), 786
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth139843/m1/802/?q=etowah

In Thomas's General Orders no. 12: Major General James B. Steedman is named as commander of the reorganized District of the Etowah, which comprises the 2nd Division, Department of the Cumberland, in Thomas's General Orders no. 12, dated 28 February 1865, signed by Wm. D. Whipple, Assistant Adjutant General, "By command of Major-General Thomas."




Friday, October 28, 2016

Army of Georgia: link to Wikipedia article

The Army of Georgia was created by Sherman in November 1864, after the fall of Atlanta, during the march to the sea.

Army of Georgia: Link to Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_Georgia

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

William Low Claim (link to transcript on TNGenWeb)

Link to

Southern Claims Commission: William Low claim transcript
http://www.tngenweb.org/bradley/sc_low.htm


Danny Williams (submitter), "Southern Claims Commission File #18845 (Civil War) of William Low of Bradley County, Tennessee," Bradley County Tennessee, Tennessee Genealogy Web (TNGenWeb.org) [Jane Colmenares, County Coordinator], 2014.

Friday, October 7, 2016

Levi Trewhitt at Tuscaloosa Prison (links)

Links to two sources -

Petition to Jefferson Davis asking to have Levi Trewhitt released from the Confederate prison at Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

http://www.simmonsgames.com/research/authors/USWarDept/ORA/OR-S2-V1-C5.html

https://books.google.com/books?id=g8xYAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA407&lpg=PA407&dq=petition+to+jefferson+davis+release+levi+trewhitt+from+tuscaloosa&source=bl&ots=v0GBVQtgzb&sig=4AaNlM93IMBGXhWT5DHkt9i6uVw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiizL2FusrPAhUBRSYKHcG6AmIQ6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=petition%20to%20jefferson%20davis%20release%20levi%20trewhitt%20from%20tuscaloosa&f=false

Monday, September 12, 2016

Michigan in the War (link)

Michigan in the War (Michigan GenWeb)

http://www.migenweb.org/michiganinthewar/cavalry/2ndcav.htm

Similar/Related site:

https://www.geni.com/projects/2nd-Michigan-Cavalry-USA-US-Civil-War/4164

Annual Report (Adj. General), State of Michigan, 1864 (link)

Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Michigan for the Year 1864

Source (link)

Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Michigan for the Year 1864
http://bit.ly/GoogleBooks-AnnualRept-Michigan1864

Callaway Campbell letters in Charles Campbell Papers, Swem Library, College of William and Mary (link)

Source for Callaway Campbell letters...

Swem Library, College of William and Mary (website)

has catalog information on source, Charles Campbell Papers

http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=wm/viw00063.xml
http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=wm/viw00063.xml


The Military Records of Michigan by the D.A.R., 1920 (link)

The Military Records of Michigan (source)

The Military Records of Michigan
D.A.R., 1920
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015071548740;view=2up;seq=4

Friday, September 9, 2016

A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion (link to Michigan Cavalry)

A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion
by Frederick H. Dyer
Second Michigan Cavalry, page 1269
Michigan Volunteers: Second Regiment Cavalry
http://bit.ly/Archive-CW-Compendium-Mich2ndCav-pg1269

Digitizing Sponsor: Emory University.
Location: Archive.org
Des Moines: The Dyer Publishing Company, 1908

Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Old Federal Road

Google Maps has a map of the Old Federal Road

Old Federal Road (Google Map)
http://bit.ly/GoogleMap-Old-Federal-Road


North Georgia website has a similar map. I came across it long before I did the other one:

Old Federal Road Route (NorthGeorgia.com)
http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Old_Federal_Road_Route

The site below shows a fork in the Old Federal Road, which helps explain things. The description of the Federal Road as it relates to Murray County, Georgia, had been a bit confusing...

Landmarks on the Old Federal Road
http://www.georgia.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/federalroadmap_07_09.pdf

Quote from Tennessee County History Series: Bradley County:
BRADLEY 27
"To the early citizens of the county, roads were of vital impor-
tance. A map of 1838 indicates that the major roads were Ala-
bama, New Town, and Georgia, with all three roads leading
from Charleston southward. Old Federal Road, constructed in
1805 in nearby Polk County, was important to the citizens of
Bradley County also. Old Copper Road, leading from the Cop-
per Basin to Cleveland, was completed around 1853 and served
as a route through which a stream of wagons loaded with copper
ingots and bars poured to the railroad at Cleveland..."

Tennessee County History Series: Bradley County (text, w/link to eBook)
Tennessee county history series : Bradley County / by Roy G. Lillard ; Joy Bailey Dunn, editor, Charles W. Crawford, associate editor

by Lillard, Roy G.; Dunn, Joy Bailey; Crawford, Charles Wann, 1931-
https://archive.org/stream/tennesseecountyh06lill/tennesseecountyh06lill_djvu.txt

RELATED, THIS BLOG: 
http://musescivilwar.blogspot.com/search/label/Old%20Federal%20Road




Old Federal Road in Official Records (August 1864)

Old Federal Road

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 38, Part 5 (Correspondence, Etc.), 646

Dalton, August 23, 1864.
Major-General Steedman:
I sent out one company yesterday morning eastward to Holly Creek, beyond Spring Place, and another through Ship's Gap to Summerville via Broomtown Valley; the last will not return till to-night. The first company returned last evening, and report a body of 500 rebel cavalry lying on the Westfield turnpike at the foot of the Cohutta Mountain, about twenty miles from here on the road to Ellijay. They are apparently holding that gap for the protection of couriers or other communications between Wheeler and Atlanta. They came there on Sunday from the diretion [sic] of Columbus, having been sent to learn the old Federal road in the neighborhood of Cohutta Springs on Saturday evening, and to proceed in the direction of Ellijay. This body has two companies guarding the ford of Hold's Creek. I do not think they intend to harass the railroad but merely to hold that gap.
Wm. J. Palmer,
Colonel, Commanding Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

____________________________________________________

Headquarters District of the Etowah,
Chattanooga, August 23, 1864.
Col. L. D. Watkins,
      Calhoun, Ga.:

   Send all your mounted force effective for a march by way of Spring Place and Cohutta Springs toward Savannah, on the Hiwassee River. Colonel Palmer sends a detachment from Dalton by way of Spring Place to Columbus; try to communicate with him. He reports 500 rebel cavalry at the foot of Cohutta Mountain on Westfield road, evidently keeping open communication between Wheeler and Atlanta. Try to break up the line and move on same route to the Hiwassee and co-operate with Colonel Palmer.
J. B. Steedman,
Major-General.


CITATION:
Title: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Ser. 1, Vol. 38, Part 5
Compiled by: Calvin Duvall Cowles
Contributors: United States. War Records Office, United States. Record and Pension Office, United States. Congress. House
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1891



Historic Columbus, Tennessee (defunct town); thoughts about its location

Early in February 1864, Federal troops began to set up camp at some little towns north of Cleveland, Tennessee: Calhoun, Charleston, and Columbus, Tennessee. Calhoun and Charleston were separated by a railroad bridge across the Hiwassee River.

Columbus, a little town in Polk County, Tennessee, is no longer extant. It was once a Cherokee trading town. In winter and early spring of 1864 (from about February), it served as a camp for some Union troops, including the Fourth Indiana Cavalry (Major G.H. Purdy, commanding). Ref.: O.R., Ser. 1, Vol. 32, Pt. 3, 240 (Letter from Maj. G.H. Purdy, HQ at Columbus, Tenn., enclosed in letter from Waterman to Wagner). 

Columbus, Tennessee (Google Map, coordinates from Roadside Thoughts)
Latitude and Longitude: 35.2262 -84.6222

Source for GPS coordinates:
http://roadsidethoughts.com/tn/columbus-xx-polk-summary.htm

But, here is my own calculation of where it would be located on today's Google satellite map, as compared to the 1865 map below it (keeping in mind that the old maps were sometimes pretty vague and could be off). My placement of it is well west of the one designated by coordinates, above, from Roadside Thoughts. Judging by the old map and by the description given on the Polk County Cemeteries page of TNGenWeb, it is about four miles north of Benton. I place it at the intersection of Athens Road and Dentville Road, northwest of the bend in the river. Columbus Road, a throwback to the historic placename, starts in the middle of nowhere on Bowater Road and runs south almost to the Hiwassee River. Then it runs in a curving path, more-or-less parallel to the river, until it intersects Dentville Road. Columbus Road ends there.


Columbus, Tennessee (historic, non-extant town; location estimated by Southern Muse):
https://goo.gl/maps/UqnAbKaFmA62

based on the map below, drafted 1863-1864 and published 1865:
Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division: Mountain
Region of NC and Tenn (dtl, Columbus, Tenn. area)

"Polk County, Tennessee Cemeteries" on Tennessee GenWeb website places Columbus Cemetery four miles north of Benton, Tennessee. Presumably the cemetery would be in the town itself.

http://www.tngenweb.org/polk/polkcem.htm

Find A Grave has a cemetery for Columbus, Tennessee, but has no GPS coordinates for it.



CITATION (1865 MAP)
Nicholson, W. L, A Lindenkohl, H Lindenkohl, Charles G Krebs, and United States Coast Survey. Mountain region of North Carolina and Tennessee. [S.l., U.S. Coast Survey, A. D. Bache, Supt, 1865] Map. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/99447196. (Accessed July 04, 2016.)

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

April 2, 1864 and later - A.P. Campbell correspondence (near Blue Springs and Cleveland, Tennessee)

April 2, 1864

Correspondence from A.P. Campbell to various officers. Scouts had observed about 2000 rebels eight miles east of Cleveland, Tennessee. Union officers expect some kind of skirmish or movement, and are trying to find out what Confederate troops are on the move, and for what purpose. I think it turns out to be a reconn. Several roads are mentioned, among them, Benton road, and Dalton and Charleston road.

Official Records, Series 1, Vol. 32, Part 3 (Correspondence), 224.
Campbell Correspondence, April 2, 1864
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth152650/m1/233/?q=spring%20place

April 3, 1864, and later...

Official Records, Series 1, Vol. 32, Part 3 (Correspondence), 240. https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth152650/m1/249/?q=spring%20place

For another day or so, Union scouts continued to watch Confederate detachments as they moved in the vicinity of Cleveland, Tennessee. Federal officers particularly feared that Longstreet was sending troops to support Johnston at Dalton, Georgia, which wasn't true. Some of the correspondence around this date mentions that speculation. In one letter from General Thomas, he mentions that the movement of April 2 was just a Rebel reconnaissance movement.

Wheeler and Roddey Raid, October 1863

The Wheeler and Roddey Raid began October 2, 1863, during the siege of Chattanooga. The Union had a long wagon train of supplies coming down Walden's Ridge in the Sequatchie Valley (Tennessee) when it was attacked by Confederates at Anderson's Crossroads. There is some evidence that the Confederates had not been watching and waiting for the supply line, but had come across it by accident while on another reconnaissance mission.

Confederate orders were to take no provisions (they couldn't carry them). However, the rebels were in almost the same starved condition as the besieged at Chattanooga. Also, cavalry is notoriously disorganized and rowdy. The men plundered the wagons, including the whiskey wagon, before burning the supply train. They killed thousands of mules and took a few of the best ones. They also took prisoners, mostly wagon masters.

As often happens, the Union officers underestimated their losses, while the Confederate officers may have overestimated their gains, so it's difficult to say exactly how many mules were killed and how many captured. The Federal cavalry (including the Second Michigan Cavalry) chased Wheeler from the Sequatchie Valley, down to Alabama, and back up through Tennessee toward the Knoxville area, finally catching him and recapturing the mules.

Here is one link to a Union report by in O.R. (via Google Books at Archive.org):

October 1863 Report by Robert Mitchell, Chief of Cavalry
including the Wheeler and Roddey Raid

Official Records, Volume 30, Part 2 (Reports), page 663
https://archive.org/stream/warrebellionaco45offigoog#page/n812/mode/2up/search/crook

The above page begins the Wheeler and Roddey Raid section, with a summary and the first of thirty reports on the raid, including:
No. 3.
Report of Brig. Gen. Robert B. Mitchell, U. S. Army, Chief of Cavalry.
Headquarters Chief of Cavalry, Department of the Cumberland,
Decherd, Tenn., October 20, 1863.
ROBERT B. MITCHELL REPORT, PAGE 669 https://archive.org/stream/warrebellionaco45offigoog#page/n818/mode/2up/search/crook
No. 4.
Report of Col. Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division.
Hdqrs. First Cav. Div., Dept. of the Cumberland,
Winchester, Tenn., October 23, 1863.
E.M. McCOOK REPORT, PAGE 675 https://archive.org/stream/warrebellionaco45offigoog#page/n824/mode/2up
No. 5.
Report of Col. Archibald P. Campbell, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Brigade.
Hdqrs. First Brigade, First Cav. Div., Winchester, Tenn., November 1, 1863.
ARCHIBALD P. CAMPBELL REPORT, PAGE 667https://archive.org/stream/warrebellionaco45offigoog#page/n826/mode/2up
Tennessee Sourcebook (with references to O.R.)
http://www.artcirclelibrary.info/Reference/civilwar/1863-10.pdf
including page 13, Ed McCook's rebuttal to Confederate accusations, in which he states that Confederates plundered the train of whiskey and robbed Federals and civilians whom they had taken as prisoners.


I hope to add more sources and links.

David Sloane Stanley - quick link to section on 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry website

David Sloane Stanley (page)
1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry (site)
http://1-22infantry.org/commanders/stanleypers.htm

This page has his history and the doc. image of an old biographical sketch on him.

Note: it says the 22nd Infantry appeared after the Civil War, not during it.


Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook - links and thoughts on citing it...


Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook is a browsable and searchable resource authored by the Tennessee Historical Commission (edited by James B. Jones, Jr.). It is hosted in browsable format (downloadable PDFs, chapter by chapter) from the Cumberland County Archives and Family History Center of Art Circle Public Library's website, ArtCircleLibrary.info ; and in searchable format at the Tennessee State Library and Archives (TSLA) website. Here are the links:

Links to two publishers: 

Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook (browsable), Art Circle Public Library
http://www.artcirclelibrary.info/Reference/civilwar/tennessee_civil_war_sourcebook.htm

Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook (database), Tennessee State Library and Archives
http://www.tnsos.net/TSLA/cwsourcebook/index.php

________________________________________________

BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION:

Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook

Title: Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook
Author: Tennessee Historical Commission
Editor: James B. Jones, Jr.

Publisher (1) (searchable database): Tennessee State Library and Archives

Publisher (2) (browsable by month/historical era): Art Circle Public Library (website) of Art Circle Public Library, in Tennessee.

Location of Tennessee Historical Commission: Nashville, Tennessee.

Location of Art Circle Public Library: Cumberland County, Tennessee.

Note: each chapter of the Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook starts over at page 1.

MY OWN VERSION OF AN ADEQUATE BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY:

Tennessee Historical Commission (edited by James B. Jones, Jr.). “April 5, 1864: Loyal East Tennessee Unionists to be given surplus U. S. Army draft animals for farm work, excerpt from Special Orders No. 96” (pgs. 14-15 of 128 in April 1864) in Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook. Cumberland County Archives and Family Heritage Center, Art Circle Public Library. http://www‌.artcirclelibrary.info/‌Reference/civilwar/1864-04.pdf .

__________________________________________

Above, I've given a biblio entry for one section in one chapter of the source: "(April 5, 1864: Loyal East Tennessee Unionists to be given surplus U.S. Army draft animals for farm work, excerpt from Special Orders No. 96)" from the browsable PDF version of this source (downloaded from Art Circle Public Library website). I could probably shorten that section title This is my attempt at a bibliography entry in Chicago Style. (APA and MLA would be different):

I've changed it half a dozen times and still don't know if I'm right. I sometimes include extra info, hoping that if someone really needs to do a look-up from my citation and the URL doesn't work, they might still be able to find my source. Above, I've put both the title of the source (Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook) and the website (Art Circle Public Library) in italic font; I'm not sure if I should. For examples, I looked at "books published online," "chapter in a book," "published thesis," and "electronic database." This has elements of all those things.

Originally, I came across one chapter of this source in a Google search. At that time, it was served up by Tennessee Civil War Sourcebook website. The site probably went over its server limits, because it no longer publishes this source. Next I found the source at Tennessee State Library and Archives (TSLA) in its browsable form. Later, it disappeared, but I found bits of it in searches. The new bits had the address of ArtCircleLibrary, but they really came up out of context, as single chapters, delivered as PDF downloads. It was kind of hard to back-track, but I browsed the library website and finally found the book. It was filed under Cumberland County Archives and Family Heritage Center. There, I found the name of the editor. The "book" doesn't have a title page, per se (that I could find), so I don't have a publication date. I didn't use a location, since it's not formally listed on a title page, but the Tennessee Historical Commission is Nashville based, if needed.

The page numbers start over at page 1 for each chapter; and, since the URL links to the whole chapter, not the specific page, I thought it wise to include page numbers and indicate that they are "of" so many pages in the chapter "(pgs. 14-15 of 128 in April 1864)." In my corresponding citation, I might also indicate the author's source "(citing O.R.)," but that may be superfluous. Actually, for this reference, I'd do my best to find the original text in O.R. and cite that, instead. But this same source also has some nice tidbits that aren't easy to find elsewhere, such as extracts from Civil War era newspapers and diaries. As best I can thresh out the many examples I've found, I should include the editor when there is both an author and editor. The newest version of Chicago Style says I should spell out "edited by" (verb form of editor) but may use "ed." if putting it after an editor's name (noun form of "editor"). They didn't say why or which one to choose, but my hunch was, in putting it after the author, I should say "edited by." Many of the examples I've found out there use abbreviations and standards that are now outdated, according to the newest style manual--so it's hard to pick and choose examples.

Monday, September 5, 2016

McLemore's Cove

Union troops camped in McLemore's Cove (or McLemore Cove) in Walker County, Georgia, in September, 1863, during the crossing of Lookout Mountain.

This post will be updated to show more information about McLemore's Cove. For now, this is just a link to a 56-page PDF description that was entered in the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

Quick link for now, to McLemore Cove Historic District (Register of Historic Places):

McLemore Cove Historic District (documentation)
http://focus.nps.gov/pdfhost/docs/NRHP/Text/94001140.pdf

In/Near: Kensington, Walker County, Georgia.

Saturday, September 3, 2016

Captain Gladden LaFavor Farwell, Company D, 28th Illinois Infantry

Obituary Extract and Military References on Captain Gladden LaFavor Farwell, Co. D, 28th Illinois Infantry

Subject: Captain Gladden LaFavor Farwell

Captain Gladden LaFavor Farwell was the son of John and Abigail (Howland) Farwell, of New England. The couple is said to have married in Barre, Washington, Vermont, in 1807, and this is thought to be G.L. Farwell's birth place. When Farwell was young, his father died (the obituary says aged five; mathematics says aged three and a half, or else he was born earlier than the stated 1818).

His mother moved to St. Charles, Missouri (before or after her husband's death is not stated). There, she married Benjamin Walker, a brickmaker, on 22 January 1822. Census shows that Benjamin Walker was born in Kentucky, though the birth places of all these individuals varies a bit in census.

Gladden L. Farwell married Mary Winfry Cheatham in July 1845, in Macomb, MacDonald, Illinois. The date is either the 14th or the 24th.

Extract of the Obituary of Capt. G.L. Farwell (as published on Find A Grave Memorial no. 114097624.

Note: This obituary, as published, is (apparently) the image of a typewritten transcript of an obituary that was reportedly published in the Macomb Journal. The typed page, as published on Find A Grave, looks like a genealogist's transcript of an obituary that was in the Journal. For instance, in the middle of the obituary transcript, it has a note regarding information found in the following day's paper (which would not be in the Feb. 3 obituary--it is the researcher's note). There is no reason to disbelieve the transcript, I'm just qualifying the source.

[BEGIN EXTRACT]:

Heading: Thursday, 3 February 1898

Quote: "Capt. G.L. Farwell died yesterday at his residence, 212 West Jackson Street, aged 79 years, last August 30th."

Name: Gladden LaFavor Farwell
Born: 30 August 1818, St. Charles, Missouri Territory (before Missouri was admitted to Union).
Funeral "tomorrow."
Burial: (from Feb. 4th issue) Oakwood Cemetery.

Parents: John and Abigail (Howland) Farwell (of New England).
"The Father of the deceased child died when he was 5 years old and his mother then married Benjamin Walker, a brickmaker, at St. Charles."

[NOTE (calculating dates from info): slight discrepancy on birth or marriage date].

Moved: (at age 15) to St. Louis; stayed "a year or 2 and then came to Quincy, Illinois."
Moved: 1842, to Macomb [McDonough Co., Illinois]
Occupation: Brickmaking.
Married: Mary W. Cheatham, 24 July 1845 "who at that time was living with her sister, Mrs. Charles Chandler."

Offspring: 7 children (4 sons, 3 daughters). 5 of 7 died in infancy.

Quote: "John S. [son] died a few years after the close of the war, during his graduating year at West Point."

Moved: 1849, to California (stayed several years; returned to Illinois).
Wife died: Mrs. Farwell: died 3 June 1893.
Survivor: One  daughter, Miss Winfrey.

Quote: "Capt. Farwell was in the militia that assisted in driving the Mormons from Nauvoo." [Note: see refs. below].

Other Military Service: (Civil War) Captain, Company D, 28th Illinois Infantry, Civil War, USA.

[END EXTRACT]

Burial: (undated) Oakwood Cemetery, Macomb, McDonough County, Illinois, United States. Find A Grave Memorial no. 114097624. http://bit.ly/FindAGrave-114097624-Capt-GL-Farwell-obit

Ref.: Macomb Journal (newspaper, est. 1851), Macomb, McDonough, Illinois. See also: "Genealogical Sources available in Macomb." http://www.macomb.lib.il.us/genealogy.pdf (accessed Sept. 3, 2016).

Ref.: Regimental History of the 28th Illinois Infantry: http://www.civilwarindex.com/armyil/28th_il_infantry.html

Ref.: Regimental Roster, Co. D, 28th Illinois Infantry: http://www.archive.org/stream/reportofadjutant02illi1#page/425/mode/1up

Ref.: Gladden L. Farwell, listed as Captain of Co. D, 28th Infantry, in Report of the adjutant general of the state of Illinois, Vol. 2: Company D, Twenty-Eighth Infantry (under) Captains: Gladden L. Farwell. Res.: Macomb. Date of rank or enlistment: Aug. 27, 1861. Date of Muster: Aug. 28, 1861. Remarks: Mustered out 1864.
Citation: J. N. Reece (ed., revisions), Adjutant General, State of Illinois, "Company D, Twenty-Eighth Infantry" (pg. 425) in |Report of the adjutant general of the state of Illinois, Vol. 2 (1861-1866)| (book), (Springfield: Phillips Bros., State Printers, 1900) pg. 425. http://www.archive.org/stream/reportofadjutant02illi1#page/425/mode/1up (accessed Sept. 3, 2016).
US Census References using indexes and images:

1860, Macomb 1st Ward: McDonough, Illinois, pg. 162, dwelling no. 1136, family no. 1138: G L Farwell, 41, male, white. Birth Year (est.): 1819. Birthplace: Missouri (Mo). Occupation: Constable. Value of real estate, 1000. Value of personal estate, 300. Also in the household: Mary, 31, born in Kentucky ("Ky"); and John, 13, born in Illinois ("Ill").

1870, Macomb, Ward 1: McDonough, Illinois, pg. 7, dwelling no. 50, family no. 50: G L Farwell, 52, male, white. Birth Year (est.): 1817-1818. Birthplace: Missouri. Occupation: City Constable. Value of real estate: 2000. Value of personal estate: 2000. Also in the household: Mary W Farwell, 42, born in Kentucky.

1880, Macomb, McDonough, Illinois: pg. 454, sheet B, dwelling no. 138, family no. 149: Gladden L Farwell, 62, male, white, married. Birth Year (est.): 1818. Birthplace: Missouri (Mo). Father's Birthplace: Mass. Mother's Birthplace: R I. Occupation: County Constable. Also in the household: Mary W Farwell, W, F, 52, Wife, born in Kentucky (both parents b. Va); and Winfry, W, F, 9, Daughter, born in Ills.

RELATED:

Nauvoo, Illinois, and the Mormon Wars

(1) Wikipedia: 1838 Mormon War https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1838_Mormon_War

(2) Wikipedia: "Illinois Mormon War" (section) in "History of Nauvoo, Illinois" http://bit.ly/Wikipedia-sgmt-IllinoisMormonWar-in-NauvooHistory

Note: Farwell's biography was also published on my North Georgia Kin blog.

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Lefever (Maj. or Mr.), USA, stationed in Cleveland, Tennessee, March 1864

Attempts to Identify People in the Myra Inman Diary

Major Lefever, Mr. ___ Lefever 
Lefever is mentioned in the Myra Inman diary, pages 252, 254.

Attempting to identify Lefever; work in progress...

Various Lefevers from other sources, not sure which, if any, he is:

1) Le Favour, Heber, 22nd Michigan. Negative--was prisoner of war that spring. 22nd Michigan was probably at Cleveland. This Le Favour could not have been in Cleveland in March 1864. Heber Le Favour of Detroit, Michigan (22nd Infantry) was taken prisoner at Chickamauga and not exchanged until May 7, 1864. Source: Record of Service of Michigan Volunteers in the Civil War, vol. 22 (22nd Mich. Inf.), 89-90, s.v. "Le Favour, Heber."
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015019372963;view=2up;seq=106

2) Colonel Lefevor mentioned, Battle of Chickamauga. Maybe. I've only partially identified him so far. It could even be the one aforementioned, but spelled differently. I don't yet know his record of service. This Col. Lefever was at the Battle of Chickamauga. He was under General Steedman then. At Chickamauga, Lefever was on extreme left of General Whittaker's Brigade, per this doc.:
https://archive.org/stream/03377448.3226.emory.edu/03377448_3226_djvu.txt
Whitaker, of the Second Brigade, Fourth Army Corps was headquartered at Blue Springs, five miles in advance of Cleveland, Tennessee, in the spring of 1864. Some of Steedman's troops were probably at Blue Springs or Cleveland. Steedman himself was in the area at some point.

3) Andrew F. Lefever (Co. B, 64th Ohio)
Link to several Lefevers of Crawford Co., Illinois, at least one of whom was at the Battle of Chickamauga. Don't know yet whether this unit was stationed at or near Cleveland. There are other Lefevers on this page, but I think he may be the only one who was in the war.
http://bit.ly/Lefever-in-Crawford-Co-Illinois-Historical-pg758

Will look for more possibilities...

RELATED POSTS, THIS BLOG:

Fourth Army Corps
http://musescivilwar.blogspot.com/2016/08/fourth-army-corps-oliver-o-howard_22.html

Myra Inman Diary (bibliog. info only, with links to bookstores)
http://musescivilwar.blogspot.com/2016/08/myra-inman-diary-bibliographic.html

Lt. Louis Alden Simmons, 84th Illinois Infantry (stationed at Cleveland, Tenn., Spring 1864)

Identity of Lt. Simmons in the Myra Inman Diary

The Myra Inman diary mentions Lt. Simmons, also known as A. Simmons, who courts her in the Spring of 1864 while he is stationed at Cleveland, Tennessee. She is Southern and says that she dislikes him (though there were signs that she liked him, at times). This Lt. Simmons has his 31st birthday on March 16, 1864 (Inman Diary pg. 254). After he leaves Cleveland, he gets married. On December 27, 1865, she learns the news about Mr. Simmons from a friend, Lizzie Lea, who received a letter. Myra hears "that he was married to a woman from Lynchfield, Mass. (Inman Diary 333)."

William R. Snell, ed. Myra Inman: A Diary of the Civil War in East Tennessee, (Macon: Mercer University Press, 2000), 254, 333.

Bibliog. info on Myra Inman: A Diary of the Civil War in East Tennessee
http://musescivilwar.blogspot.com/2016/08/myra-inman-diary-bibliographic.html

My identification, based on genealogy profiles and sources, is that he is:

Louis Alden Simmons, 1st Lieutenant and 2nd Major, 84th Illinois Infantry, and author of the regimental history, is the son of Hezekiah and Zoa (Daily) Simmons, who married in North Bridgewater, Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1830. Louis Simmons was born in Massachusetts on March 16, 1833 (which would make him 31 in 1864). He married (1) Maria Theresa Harwood on November 20, 1865, in Fitchburg, Worcester, Massachusetts (not Lynchfield, as Myra recalled the town's name). The marriage occurred about a month before Myra heard the news. Simmons moved to Illinois by about 1850, eventually settling in Macomb, McDonough, Illinois. Simmons died December 6, 1888, and is buried at Prairie Lawn Cemetery, Wellington, Sumner, Kansas, US.

I attached some notes about the Inman diary to this soldier's profile on FamilySearch.org.

Current Individual ID:

Louis Alden Simmons  •  L8HQ-W3W
16 March 1833 – 6 December 1888

URL (requires account and log-in):
https://familysearch.org/tree/#view=ancestor&section=details&person=L8HQ-W3W


Louis A. Simmons's own memoir, The History of the 84th Reg't. Ill. Vols., is very much a regimental history and doesn't give many details as to the author's own social experiences within the town, except to say that it was a pleasant town, full of loyal Unionists who made the soldiers feel welcome. He doesn't mention the young Southern lady (not a loyalist) who apparently won his heart.

He does tell about the march to Cleveland and the gladness of the soldiers to find that they would camp there for the winter. Pages 148 to 152 of his book describe the march, first to Charleston, Tennessee, and on to Cleveland. Simmons's account has slightly conflicting dates; he first has the brigade leaving its camp at Tyner's Station (now part of Chattanooga) on February 3, 1863, but then mentions that they marched toward Charleston on the 2nd to escort a wagon train (this may have been a detachment). The 84th marched in a northeasterly direction toward Cleveland, Tennessee. (They probably followed a route approximating today's I-75 from Cleveland to Chattanooga, passing through a gap of White Oak Mountain.) The soldiers' first encounter with the town was a brief but pleasant one. Their unit soon left Cleveland, but later returned to be quartered there--some at Cleveland and some at nearby Blue Springs. These camps were very agreeable to them. Chapter 12 (page 153) is entitled, "Camp at Cleveland--Reconnoisance to Rocky Face Ridge and Preparation for the Atlanta Campaign."

Simmons must have marched on February 2nd. He and his unit camped overnight near Cleveland, and the next day "passed through Cleveland about noon" (Simmons 149).

Apparently this was February 3rd, because Myra Inman notes in her diary on that day that "A Lt. Simmons came in and stayed about an hour and talked" (Inman diary 245). This would have been their first meeting.

Toward the end of February, the troops left Cleveland and marched to Dalton, Georgia, to make an assault against Bragg's army. It was unsuccessful and the army returned to Blue Springs. Simmons is disappointed because the soldiers are ordered to stay at Blue Springs, and don't get to return to their comfortable camps at Cleveland, which he blames on the despised Colonel Grose (Simmons 158).

The History of the 84th Reg't Ill. Vols
https://archive.org/details/historyof84threg00simmo
L.A. Simmons, (Macomb: Hampton Brothers, Publishers, 1866). Archive.org

U.S. Census References (index and images):
1850: Warren county, Warren, Illinois, pg. 476: Lewis A Simmons, age 17, white, male. Birth: 1833, Massachusetts; listed in the household of Hezekiah Simmons.

1860: Macomb 4th Ward, McDonough, Illinois, pg. 205: L A Simmons, age 27, male, apparent head. Birth: 1833, Ills. Occupation: Atty at Law.

1870: Ward in city of Macomb, McDonough, Illinois, pg. 9: S A Simmons [as indexed; should be 'L A.' Compare 'L' in 'Louisa']. Male, age 37, born Massachusetts. Occupation: Attorney-at-Law.

1880: Macomb, McDonough, Illinois, pg. 462 B: Louis A Simmons, age 47, male, self (head). Birth: 1833, Massachusetts.

Various NARA microfilm publications (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); as indexed at FamilySearch.org (with viewable document images).

84th Illinois Infantry

84th Illinois Infantry was attached to Oliver O. Howard's 4th Army Corps from October 1863 to June 1865. It was one of the regiments of Col. William Grose's Third Brigade, in Maj Gen. David S. Stanley's First Division. Note that even though this was an infantry regiment, it was placed in a cavalry brigade. This is not so unusual in the Civil War.  General Oliver O. Howard's Fourth Army Corps was headquartered at Blue Springs, five miles in advance of Cleveland, Tennessee, in February 1864.

The following extract is courtesy of 
Illinois in the Civil War:
That website cited A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, vol. III, Regimental Histories
by Frederick H. Dyer [1908]

84th Regiment Illinois Infantry

  • Organized at Quincy, Ill., and
  • mustered in September 1, 1862.
  • Left State for Louisville, Ky., September 23.
  • Attached to 10th Brigade, 4th Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862.
  • 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Left Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863.
  • 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863.
  • 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps, to May, 1865.
  • 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps, to June, 1865.
  • Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22.
    • Reconnoissance from Rossville September 17.
    • Ringgold, Ga., September 17.
    • Battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19-20.
  • Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23.
  • Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27.
    • Lookout Mountain November 23-24.
    • Mission Ridge November 25.
    • Pursuit to Ringgold, Ga., November 26-27.
    • Ringgold Gap, Taylor's Ridge, November 27.
  • March to relief of Knoxville November 28-December 17.
  • At Whiteside, Tyner's Station and Blue Springs till May, 1864.
  • Demonstration on Dalton, Ga. February 22-27, 1864.
    • Near Dalton February 23.
    • Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap, and Rocky Faced Ridge February 23-25.
  • Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May to September.
    • Tunnel Hill May 6-7.
    • Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11.
    • Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8-9.
    • Demonstration on Dalton May 9-13.
    • Battle of Resaca May 14-15.
    • Kingston May 18-19.
    • Near Cassville May 19.
Reference for the location of the 84th Infantry as part of Oliver O. Howard's First Division: O.R., Ser. 1, Vol. 32, Pt. 3, p.551. Link to page 551.

Myra Inman Diary - Bibliographic Information, Link to Amazon, etc.

William R. Snell, ed., Myra Inman: A Diary of the Civil War in East Tennessee (Macon: Mercer University Press, 2000).

Title: Myra Inman: A Diary of the Civil War in East Tennessee
Editor: William R. Snell
Publisher: Mercer University Press
Location: Macon, Georgia
Year of Publication: 2000
Format: Hardcover Book

ISBN: 0-86554-590-1


This book is very narrowly focused on events in Cleveland, Tennessee (Bradley County, Tennessee). The young lady who writes it is more interested in sewing her chemise and feeding her nephew than she is in battles and skirmishes. However, it is very useful to anyone working on the Civil War in Cleveland, Tennessee. She mentions friends and family by name, mentions births and deaths (scant mentions, but helpful for cross matching things). Certain Union troops were stationed in Cleveland, Tennessee, from about February 1864 to May 1864. A few officers visit her family's boarding house/restaurant frequently, and are mentioned by rank and surname. She occasionally mentions a skirmish (bare mention) in the Tennessee towns of Cleveland and Charleston. She mentions Dalton, Georgia, a few times. She begins to worry when local people are being arrested for having aided the Confederate enemy just before the Union troops came into town. The diary is useful for gauging the feelings of citizens in Cleveland.

In other posts, I'm going to try to identify some of the troops which were stationed in Cleveland, Charleston, and Calhoun, Tennessee in 1864. Col. Eli Long and his troops of the Second Brigade were there (which includes, I think, the Second Michigan, First Tennessee, and 9th Pennsylvania); I know that the first two were there. Oliver O. Howard (4th Corps) was there, at least part of the time. Click here to browse my posts about Cleveland, Tennessee... 


Myra Inman (Amazon.com)
https://www.amazon.com/Myra-Inman-Diary-Civil-Tennessee/dp/0865545901/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1472626042&sr=1-1&keywords=Myra+inman

Myra Inman (Barnes and Noble)
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/myra-inman-william-r-snell/1113569749



Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Link: Eli Long Report on 7th Pennsylvania site (July 1864, Atlanta Campaign)

Eli Long Report, 12 July 1864

http://www.7thpennsylvaniacavalry.com/reports-of-colonel-eli-long-fourth-ohio-cavalry-commanding-second-brigade-july-12-1864/

Quick save of above report and website.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

1) Quick Links: Wikipedia Articles on Selected Civil War Battles, Persons, and Other Topics

Quick Links: Wikipedia Articles on Selected Civil War Battles, Persons, and Other Topics

Since I'm always having to do quick lookups of battle dates, I'm providing quick links to Wikipedia articles on selected battles, personages, and other topics.

First Battle of Dalton 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Dalton

Second Battle of Dalton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Dalton

Battle of Resaca
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Resaca

Battle of Tunnel Hill
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunnel_Hill,_Georgia

Battle of Chickamauga
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chickamauga

First Battle of Chattanooga
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Chattanooga

Second Battle of Chattanooga
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Chattanooga

Battle of Chattanooga (Campaign)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chattanooga


First Battle of Dalton: Official Records, Volume 32 (various parts)

First Battle of Dalton, Late February 1864

Various Bits of Correspondence from O.R., Series 1, Volume 32 (Parts 1-3)

Chapter 44, "Demonstration on Dalton, Ga." 

About February 20, the Federals started down toward Dalton, Georgia, in force. There were three columns of Federal troops, moving from Ringgold, Georgia; Red Clay, Georgia; and Charleston, Tennessee. This was after the Chattanooga Campaign, around the beginning of The Atlanta Campaign (with some correspondence, just before the "official" beginning of the Atlanta Campaign).

This is a quick post of my file, without page links. Find links to O.R. volume at bottom of this post!

Correspondence about two weeks before the movement shows that Grant hoped to take Dalton:

[General Ulysses S. Grant to General George H. Thomas]: 
Should you not be required to go into East Tennessee, could you not make a formidable reconnaissance toward Dalton, and, if successful in driving the enemy out, occupy that place and complete the railroad up to it this winter?
from:
O.R., Series 1,  Vol. 32, Pt. 2 (Corresp.), 373.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891.
Chapter 44, "Demonstration on Dalton, Ga."

[Next, on the same page, is this correspondence from Schofield, as to the possibility of pushing Longstreet out of East Tennessee. He advises waiting until spring.]

[QUOTE]:
Knoxville, Feb. 12, 1864--1:30 p.m.
Major-General Thomas, Chattanooga:
   It is not practicable to move this army with artillery and wagon transportation before spring, and then the railroad will have to be relied on chiefly. The infantry might be supplied by a train of pack-mules from this place if forage for the mules can be brought here by rail until the railroad can be opened to any new position we may obtain.
   With 10,000 additional infantry I believe I would be strong enough without artillery to drive Longstreet out of East Tennessee. I can have the pack train here by the 1st of March. If you can give me 10,000 infantry, and supply me here with provisions and forage, I am willing to undertake the rest.
   My opinion is, however, that it would be wiser to wait until spring, but am willing to leave by the 1st of March, if time is deemed of sufficient importance.
   I have telegraphed substantially the above to Major-General Grant.
J. M. Schofield,
   Major-General, Commanding.
[END QUOTE]
________


 [Thomas to Grant, Chattanooga, February 12, 1864]. 
"I think an advance on Dalton would be successful, if you will let me have the division of Logan during the movement." (pg. 373)
______
 [Grant to Thomas, Nashville, February 12, 1864--3.20 p.m.]:
 "Logan's troops started yesterday morning. If I decide not to make the move at present into East Tennessee, I will send them back, unless you require them to aid in advance on Dalton." (pg. 373)
Above is from: O.R., Series 1,  Vol. 32, Pt. 2 (Corresp.), 373.

NEXT PAGE...

On page 374, Schofield writes to Grant explaining what would be needed to move against Longstreet. Grant replies (Feb. 12):
"No movement will be made against Longstreet at present. Give your men and animals all the rest you can preparatory for early operations in the spring. Furlough all the veterans you deem it prudent to let go." (p.374)
  from: O.R., Series 1,  Vol. 32, Pt. 2 (Corresp.), 374.

After the fact, Sherman (and probably Grant, as well), hem-hawed around and rewrote the story to say, Well, shucks, it was just a little old demonstration, never meant to try to take Dalton; and besides (they say), it was Thomas's idea... ;-)
______________________________

RELATED, FROM OTHER VOLUMES:

O.R., Series 1, Vol. 32, Pt. 1 (Reports).
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891.
Chapter 44, "Demonstration on Dalton, Ga."

(p.449, on 22 Feb. 1864):
Gen. Thos. says, "Cruft occupies Red Clay, and has pushed a reconn. twd. Varnell's Station.

(p.449, 23 Feb. 1864, Tunnel Hill, Ga.) Whipple reports to Thomas: "Reconn. to Tunnel Hill completed. Enemy retreating before our skirmishers. About 400 cavalry, no infantry; on battery of artillery. Main position of our force between Ringgold Gap and ridge 3 miles this side of Tunnel Hill.
   Loss 1 sgt, killed, & 4 or 5 wounded. "Rebel works and quarters at Tunnel Hill abandoned."

Chapter 44, "Demonstration on Dalton, Ga."

Col. Thomas E. Champion, 96th Illinois Infantry, cmdg. Second Brigade, writes from "In the Field, near Stone Church, February 27, 1864. Reports that on Mond. 22nd, he left camp @ Blue Springs, Tenn., & (w/3rd Brig.) went on reconn. to Red Clay. Stayed till 23rd. Marched to Tiger Creek, on the rd. to Catoosa Platform, arrived that night. On Wed. 24th: returned to Lee's house. Proceeded to Tunnel Hill on a reconn., returned to Lee's. ON THURS., LEFT CAMP, together w/Col. Dickerson's brigade, 15th Army Corps, 3 a.m., > Dalton. "Arriving within about 2 1/2 miles of Buzzard Roost Gap, we found the cavalry under Colonel Long skirmishing with the enemy in the direction of the gap." [I formed brigade into 2 lines, w/Grose's brig. on rt. & Dickerson's in rsv. Advanced, driving enemy 1 1/2 mi., dislodging him from a densely wooded ridge. (Problems/delays w/right forming--is 14th corps, so we halted on hill to avoid being flanked). Lay entire day, surrounded by heavy force. Lost 36. Took 10 pris. Enemy loss d.k. Thinks "greater than ours." Left 11 pm > Lee's, stayed till 26th. Proceeded to Tunnel Hill, remained till 9 pm, returned to Stone Church near Catoosa Platform.
Remained till 1 pm on 27th, then mched to Blue Springs @ 12m. [Thos. E. Champion, Col., cmdg Brigade] (pp. 430-431).
---------
(p.450, on 23 Feb. 1864, Tunnel Hill, Ga.) Whipple informs Thos. that "Colonel Long reports on Spring Place road, 3 1/2 miles from Dalton; drove one infantry regiment out of their quarters; captured 12 prisoners. He thinks the enemy is leaving Dalton."(p.450) (3-1/2 has "1/2" as superscript, no space or hyphen)

(p.450, 24 Feb. 1864, Thomas to Palmer: "If you succeed in driving the enemy from Dalton, send back all the wagons you can spare at once..."


(p.450)[24 Feb. Whipple to Thos.]: "Some fighting this evening on the Cleveland road, where Grose is."

24 Feb. 1864

Long's cavalry, as an advance force, met rebels 3 1/2 miles W of Dalton (infantry & cavalry).  Wm. Grose, 36th Indiana Infantry, w/small force, was in support.

Long drove enemy cavalry 2 miles, then met (what citizens called) "Stewart's division of infantry in sight of and at the railroad." Grose advanced his infantry, checked & held back enemy at 1 mile from RR till night, then drew back to Widow Burke's Farm, 3 miles from the HQ of the Third Brigade, First Div., 4th Army Corps (loc. unstated), leaving Col. Long & 1 regt. of infantry "2 miles to our front." Don't believe it's a lg. force of rebels, "but too much for our small force." Double our force could have gained the RR & held it. "The enemy used no artillery. We fired 5 rounds. ... (p.431-432, from Col. Wm. Grose, 36th Indiana Infantry, cmdg. Third Brigade, to ___)


[In another report, Grose thinks they could have taken Dalton w/another 10,000 men on our left.](p.434)

"Many of the men were almost without shoes, and yet without a murmur of complaint they marched four nights and every day of the seven while on this trip." (O.H.P. Carey, Lt. Col., Comdg., Thirty-sixth Indiana Volunteers)(p.441, "Report of Lieut. Col. Oliver H. P. Carey, Thirty-sixth Indiana Infantry."
   --Blue Springs, March 1, 1864. (p.440-441)

D.W. Norton, Major & Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, wrote from Chattanooga, by order of Maj. Gen. J. M. Palmer, on 1 March 1864. He congratulated them on their offensive reconn twd. Tunnel Hill & Dalton, but complained that some stragglers and skirkers had caused some "wanton destruction of property" among peaceable citizens near the action.

-------------------------

(p.470, 23 Feb. 1864, "At Cross-Roads of Benton and Dalton Road and Varnell's Station and King's Lower Bridge Road, 6 Miles Southeast of Varnell's Station and 9-1/2 Miles from Dalton, February 23, 1864--1.25 p.m."

Long, at 11.30 this a.m., "attacked and drove out of their camp at least a regiment of rebel infantry, 3-1/2 miles this side of Dalton. They had winter quarters (log-huts), and as they were completely surprised they had not time to move any plunder out of their huts, and from their appearance and the small amount of plunder in them I believe they were preparing to leave. The cars were whistling furiously while the skirmish was going on. I have not force enough to cope single-handed with all of their cavalry, but I think you may advance with safety if you can still keep your supports, Palmer's troops, &c., within supporting distance. I believe they are leaving the place, and they should not be allowed to do "[so]" undisturbed. I shall be compelled to go somewhere to get some forage. Please let me hear.... I shall either wait here or move up on the road to Varnell's Station until I hear from you."
... Eli Long, Colonel, Commanding. (p.470)

(p.470)
"Hdqrs. Second Brigade, Second Cavalry Division,
Varnell's Station, February 24, 1864--8 a. m.
"Sir: I have just arrived here. Will push down the dirt road that runs alongside of the railroad as far toward Dalton as practicable. I believe there are some rebel cavalry on the main Cleveland and Dalton road. I will be compelled to go back to the Connesauga or somewhere else to-morrow unless I have better luck in foraging to-day than I did yesterday. Please to forward a copy of this to General Palmer. A brigade of infantry was encamped where we had the skirmish yesterday. I have met nothing this morning. Let me know your location by the bearer.
"Very respectfully....
"Eli Long, Colonel, Commmanding Brigade." [to Maj. W. H. Sinclair, Assistant Adjutant-General."] [They all seem to be reporting to Sinclair]

NEXT, p.471, he writes "On Road from Dalton to Varnell's Station, Just East of Tunnel Mountain, Feb. 24, 1864--2 p.m.
He has driven in w/1 squadr. of infantry pickets on the dirt and rail roads 3 miles from Dalton, & am now in line w/pickets skirm.g. in front. [Rebs have infantry on all roads]. I am now 5 miles from Dalton & [won't] go further until I hear further from you & result of your reconn." (Eli Long) He sends a company to remain on picket at Varnell's Stat. to watch the Cleveland and Dalton road that goes down on the other side of the RR.

He runs into lg. infantry cantoment 3 miles +/- from Dalton; runs out again. (Left Dalton).

----
(p.471) 25 Feb. (Ammo nearly exhausted): I have my command near a gap road wh. runs thru the ridge on your left, w/pickets down the RR some qtr. of a mile. "Nothing can come through the gap without my knowing, and I think this is the only road between here and Dalton through which a force can get on your flank or rear, and as my ammunition is nearly exhausted I will reman here until further orders.
"Respectfully,
"Eli Long, Colonel, Commanding Cavalry.
[to Gen. Cruft]
---

(p.471) 25 Feb. 1864--4.15 o'clock.

"General: The fire has just driven me out of the woods on the ridge that I was occupying. I still have a picket on the road in the gap, however. A few minutes since about 40 infantry skirmishers moved up on our right, advancing toward your lines. The rebel lines, I think, extend farther east than yours. At any rate, they came to the foot of the ridge I have been occupying, and I think there may be some danger of their lapping you on your left unless your lines extend completely across the valley in which your left rested this morning. Please let me know for my guidance where your left now is. Cannot your quartermaster send me some forage? Your commissary would not deliver me any rations on Captain Kniffin's order, which please find inclosed with note of commissary.
"Respe... Eli Long, Colonel, Comdg. Second Brig., Second Cav. Div.
"Brigadier-General Cruft,
   Commanding Division.
  "P.S.--The rebel cavalry pickets are in sight in our front. Please indorse Captain Kniffin's order, so that I can get the rations." "E.L."
----------[next, on p.472, is the report about having left Calhoun w/600 men...camped at Mr. Waterhouse, on Connesauga River, about 30 miles south of Calhoun. (Feb. 27, 1864, reporting from near Lee's House, Ga.)
__________________________________

CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ABOUT TWO WEEKS BEFORE THE BATTLE OF DALTON. JOHNSTON WAS WORRIED ABOUT A FEDERAL TROOP MOVEMENT TOWARD MOBILE, ALABAMA:

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 32, Part 2 (Corresp., etc.), 729.

-----------------------

Full citation by Google:

Title: The War of the Rebellion: v.1-53 [serial no. 1-111] Formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the southern states, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders and returns relating specially thereto. 1880-1898. 111v.
Contributors: United States. War Records Office, United States. Record and Pension Office

Publ.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1891
Digitized: 6 Jul. 2011.

[From Cover Page]: 
Series 1, Vol. 32, Pt. 1--Reports."
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891.

Links to Official Records, Volume 32
I don't have specific page links at moment, but here are links to the volume:

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 32, Part 1 (Reports).
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth152618/

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 32, Part 2 (Correspondence, etc.).
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth152633/

Official Records, Series 1, Volume 32, Part 3 (Correspondence, etc.).
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth152650/

Courtesy of Texas University

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

J. S. Hurlburt (attempts to identify him through references)

J.S. Hurlburt, author of the Rebellion in Bradley County, East Tennessee... Who Was He?

J. S. Hurlburt was the author of an 1866 book about the Civil War in East Tennessee, specifically in Cleveland, Tennessee, and surrounding areas. The book is strongly biased toward the Union and details abuses of local Unionists by Confederates. It is part documentary and part tinged with the dramatic style of "yellow journalism" so popular in the 19th century. It also gives specific accounts, some very detailed, of events that happened in and around Cleveland, Tennessee, which are not available elsewhere.

This is a link to his book (digital image, interactive, at Archive.org):
History of the Rebellion in Bradley County, East Tennessee
by J.S. Hurlburt
https://archive.org/details/historyofrebelli00hurl

J.S. Hurlburt, History of the Rebellion in Bradley County, East Tennessee, (J.S. Hurlburt: Indianapolis, 1866).

In a later reprint of the book (or in some other reference), an editor called into question the identity of the author as J.S. Hurlburt. I wondered why the comment was made, and what the evidence was. I began to look for ways to identify Hurlburt, if that was not a pseudonym.

In the preface of Hurlburt's book, the author alludes to another project, A History of the 9th Indiana, which he had hoped to published, but could not raise enough money through subscriptions. He hoped, by publishing the Bradley County book, to raise money for that other project. I did find some documents related to that other project (which never came off, apparently, as there seems to be no History of the 9th Indiana Infantry). Hurlburt wrote to General Robert H. Milroy, detailing his plan for the book; and he published a Prospectus, trying to get subscribers. I am providing links to those documents (at Jasper County Public Library).


Letter to Gen. Milroy: Hurlburt's Earlier Book Proposal: History of the 9th Indiana

J.S. Hurlburt's 1863 book proposal for a History of the 9th Indiana [Infantry] Regiment (with links to the document object (interactive image of the letter) and transcript (text) on Jasper County Public Library site for Jasper County, Indiana.

Summary:

J. S. Hurlburt had planned to publish a history of the 9th Indiana [Infantry, as commanded by Robert H. Milroy]. He had even written a letter to General R.H. Milroy, regarding costs and publication details, in a letter dated September 24, 1863. Apparently, the men of the 9th Regiment, Indiana, started planning this history of the regiment before the war was even over. At the time of this letter, J.S. Hurlburt, the author of it, is actually on his way back to the regiment, where he will remain for two months. He is asking General Milroy for a photograph (of the general) to put in the book.

To that end, Hurlburt describes the project, mentioning specific costs. He plans to take the writing up to the regiment's current engagements ("perhaps the close of the Winchester affair"), and take up the story again (subsequent actions) in volume two. He mentions also an engraving of Cravens, and discusses the qualities of stone and steel engravings, so he does appear to be getting information from a printer.

Hurlburt states that the regimental officers have donated funds ($81) to purchase the steel engraving of the general's likeness for an engraved illustration to be used as a frontispiece to the book, and that the regiment has put down $600 to publish the first volume. He describes the plan for the size, style, and format of the intended book.

Description: Digital image (document object) of a handwritten letter; 1 sheet, double folded, 4 sides of writing; white stationery with light blue lines. Below is a link to the letter, as presented on the Jasper County Public Library site, which also has a text transcript of it:

Web page: "History of the 9th Indiana Infantry Regiment and J. S. Hurlburt"
http://cdm16066.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/Milroy/id/1887

History of the 9th Indiana Infantry Regiment and j. s. hurlburt
Rights: This item is owned by the Jasper County Public Library. Permission to publish or reproduce this item is required and must be obtained from the Director of the Jasper County Public Library, Rensselaer, Indiana. Please visit www.myjcpl.org for more information.
Identifier: RHM_1863-162_d.jpg [IMAGE PDF RHM_1863-162_a ]
_________________________________

Flyer: Prospectus for Hurlburt's Book
http://bit.ly/JasperCo-Ind-Library-JS-Hurlburt-CivilWar-book-flyer

Jasper County Public Library also has an image and transcription of a flyer, entitled "Prospectus. To a forthcoming History of the Ninth Regiment Indiana Volunteers" and signed "J.S. Hurlburt." He gives his address as Michigan City, Indiana (which is in Laporte County). In this source, Hurlburt says that he travelled with the 9th Indiana (implying that he was not actually an officer or soldier in the regiment).

The flyer describes the Civil War and background, and importance of keeping the history. The article says, "We propose, accordidgly, to write the History of the Ninth Indian Regiment...." It goes on to list plans and features, with eleven numbered articles or sections, of a paragraph or more each, listing his detailed plan for the regimental history (which never was published and may not have been written, unfortunately). Here are a few selected features:

  "1st. The Work is to embrace a complete History of the Ninth during the three months service, beginning with its organization, under Col. Milroy, (now Major General,) at Camp Morton, and giving, in sufficient detail, an account of everything of interest in relation to the Regiment, its marches and skirmishes, all the particulars of the sick, killed and wounded, a brief statement..." (it goes on; in other words, a full, detailed history)

  "2d. The narrative will be taken up and continued..."

  "3d. Perhaps the most novel...a biographical sketch of the life of every private in the Regiment, who becomes a subscriber to the book. The full name, age, birth and birth-place, parentage, enlistment in the army..."

The flyer continues. He has eleven articles. It is a full page of small-font text, like an encyclopedia or newsletter page. At the bottom, in the text, it has:
   "At the present advanced rates of publication, the subscription price cannot be fixed at less than $4 per volume.
   "Address at Michigan City, Indiana.
   "J. S. Hurlburt." (name in big, bold capitals).

There is then a small space for "Names" (prob. subscribers).

http://bit.ly/JasperCo-Ind-Library-JS-Hurlburt-CivilWar-book-flyer

Title: To Ind 9th Regt From JS Hurlburt Date Unknown
Description: A flier advertising a work that Hurlburt proposes to write on the history of the 9th Indiana, a history of Indiana troops in the war, and a history of the war itself.
Creator: Hurlburt, J. S.
Military Units: Indiana Infantry Regiment, 9th (1861-1865)
Owner: Jasper County Public Library: http://www.myjcpl.org
Long URL: http://cdm16066.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/Milroy/id/444/rec/1
_________________________________

Not found on published roster.
Hurlburt does not claim to have been a soldier in the 9th Infantry. He just says that he travelled with the regiment. However, I decided to do a search of the roster of that regiment, anyway. Not surprisingly, it turned up negative. There is a James Humbert, Jr., is present (Co. E, Allen County), but that is not the same surname at all, just similar.
http://www.civilwarindex.com/armyin/soldiers/9th_in_infantry_soldiers.pdf
_________________________________

Possible Relevance: References to J. S. Hurlburt, which may or may not relate to our subject.

J.S. Hulburt, of Laporte, Indiana, in FamilySearch.
Different surname spelling (and we don't actually know our subject's age or birth place): J.S. Hulburt of right era in Laporte, Indiana (which is the same place as the address given on the flyer was printed--Michigan City is in Laporte). However, haven't found him in other census records yet.

FamilySearch (but free account and login are required).
To view the individual's ID page requires a FamilySearch log-in:
https://familysearch.org/tree/#view=ancestor&section=details&person=L5KX-RH7

J.S. Hulburt in U.S. Census, 1860, Laporte, Indiana (FS acct. and login required)
https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4N5-Z6Z?from=lynx1&treeref=L5KX-RH7
_________________________________

Here is mention that may or may not refer to the same J.S. Hurlburt:

Reference to J.S. Hurlburt, a former journeyman, in Biennial Report (1888)
Not known if this is the same J.S. Hurlburt, but it is only 22 years after the date that his book was published, so it could be him. 

"Paperhanger, Milwaukee--Dissolve all unions. I was a journeyman for thirty years; never struck for higher wages; always got the best work by working for the interest of my employers. I do not believe in organizations, because they compel a man to pay more than his business will allow.--(J.S. Hurlburt."

Frank A. Flower, Commissioner, et al. Third Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics: Wisconsin, 1887-1888 ("Biennial Report"). (Madison: Democrat Printing Co., State Printers, 1888), 58. http://bit.ly/GoogleBooks_JS-Hurlburt-in-1888-Biennial-Rept-pg52 
__________________________________

Similar name found in:
History of Ionia County, Michigan: Her People, Industries and Institutions

There is nothing to say the following reference is to Hurlburt, or to any relation of his. However, the reference is to an early pioneer of Michigan, and some Michigan regiments were stationed in and around Cleveland, Tennessee, for some months in the spring of 1864. In this source, one "James Hurlbut" is mentioned as one of the officials chosen at the first township meeting in Cass Township (April 2, 1838). He was among the men chosen as constables (70). It think it might be relevant, or at least, is worth keeping, just in case:

Reference: 
E. E. Branch, "Berlin Township" (Chapter 3), History of Ionia County, Michigan: Her People, Industries and Institutions,  70.

E. E. Branch, ed., History of Ionia County, Michigan: Her People, Industries and Institutions, With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families. Volume 1 (full text, digitized by Google; auto-generated, with errors), (Indianapolis: B. F. Bowen & Company, Inc., 1916). http://bit.ly/GoogleDigitized-Hist-of-Ionia-Co-Michigan-1916 (text file at Archive.org).



Civil War Map of Chattanooga, Tennessee - 1863

Civil War Map of Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1863

Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


Original referring site, where I first found it:
Civil War Trust, CivilWar.org (Chattanooga Map)
http://bit.ly/CivilWarTrust-1863-ChattanoogaMap

Library of Congress website (download, various sizes).
https://www.loc.gov/item/2003630438/


The Chattanooga Campaign: Map of Chattanooga During Siege of Chattanooga


Monday, August 22, 2016

Veteran Furlough: Practices, Pay, Incentives (sources)

Two Quotes about the Practice of Furloughs as Incentive, from The Union Must Stand: The Civil War Diary of John Quincy Adams Campbell


The Practice of Veteran Furloughs
(from pg 142, Google Preview of: The Union Must Stand…)

Part of the incentive to reenlist was a badge of honor for the unit.
"...if three-quarters of the men in a given regiment reenlisted, the unit could both retain its identity and add 'Veteran' to its official title (as in the 'Fifth Iowa Veteran Volunteer Infantry').
"...soldiers who reenlisted could immediately go home on 'veteran furlough,' rather than await the expiration of their terms of service. Returning veterans would also receive a federal bounty of four hundred dollars as well as varying amounts from state and local governments, but the 'veteran regiment' and 'veteran furlough' gambits were by far the most effective. Ultimately 136,000 Union veterans--slightly over half--decided to reenlist."
Note: April 1, 1864: date that Campbell returned home.

CITATION:
John Quincy Adams Campbell, Mark Grimsley, and Todd D. Miller, (Google Preview of) The Union Must Stand: The Civil War Diary of John Quincy Adams Campbell, (Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2000), (search result: "furlough," pg. 142). http://bit.ly/Union-Must-Stand-preview142-furloughs.
____________________________

"Soldier's Pay," A CCWRT Presentation by Moffat, 1965
http://www.cincinnaticwrt.org/data/ccwrt_history/talks_text/moffat_soldiers_pay.html

William C. Moffat, Jr., "Soldiers Pay" (Jan. 1965), (CCWRT History: "Talks"), Cincinnati Civil War Round Table (The Cincinnati Civil War Round Table, 2000). http://www.cincinnaticwrt.org/data/ccwrt_history/talks_text/moffat_soldiers_pay.html.
_____________________________

More about pay and bonuses (link to article).

RELATED, THIS BLOG: FURLOUGHS AND INCENTIVES, VET RECALL